Planting trees, shrubs and vines

dripline Winter is the best time to plant deciduous trees, shrubs and vines, including roses and fruit trees. Evergreen plants do well if planted in spring in cool and temperate climates, or in early autumn where summers are very hot. Moon planters will plant these during Full Moon phase for best results.
Always make planting holes wider than deep. Feeder roots are situated under the outer foliage canopy where rain drips from the plant. A wide planting hole allows the easy spread of roots as the plant grows. Wide holes are extremely important where soil is heavy. Mulch should also be applied to the outer canopy area, not near the trunk. Mulch against the trunk can cause collar rot.
Having dug the planting hole, fill it with water and leave it for an hour or two. This practice serves two purposes. It allows you to check that the area is well drained, as few plants grow well in waterlogged soil. It also prevents water applied after planting being drawn away from the plant into surrounding drier soil. If some water remains in the bottom of the hole, plant the tree or shrub in a mound to improve drainage. If a lot of water remains in the hole, avoid planting in that spot until drainage is improved.
Don’t plant any deeper than the tree or shrub was in the pot. Bare-rooted plants will have a change of colour on the trunk that indicates the original planting depth. This will ensure that any graft is positioned above ground level. To avoid planting deeper, lay a garden stake across the top of the hole and position the plant so that the original depth is aligned with the bottom of the stake. If necessary, make a mound of soil in the bottom of the hole to that the original planting depth can be repeated. Spread the roots of bare-rooted plants over the mound before filling.
Fill in the hole, occasionally jiggling the trunk of bare-rooted plants to avoid air pockets around the roots, and mix some compost or worm castings through only the top 10 cm of soil. Organic matter in the bottom of the hole will cause the plant to sink as the organic matter breaks down. If you do not have compost to spare, place some well-rotted horse or cow manure on the soil surface, under the outer canopy, and cover it with 5–7 cm of organic mulch. The addition of organic matter when planting perennials is very important, as many foreign plant families (exotics), in particular, rely on a beneficial soil fungi called mycorrhiza to supply their roots with nutrients and water, and mycorrhiza live in organic matter. Without organic matter in soil, plants can struggle to absorb what they need for healthy growth, and will be more prone to pests and disease. Australian natives will benefit from the application of some leaf mould around them.
Gently firm soil around the plant, but do not trample the soil as roots can be damaged. Water gently, to settle soil, before applying mulch. Do not apply any extra fertiliser at planting time, but an application of seaweed extract tea can help reduce transplant shock.