Spring onions – saving seed

Spring onions or shallots as they are sometimes known often run to seed when weather warms in spring.
Onionseed1 Seed of green onions does not keep for long and seed collected for sowing next season will produce a vigorous crop as this seed will have come from plants that have adapted to your local soil and climate conditions. Leave several of your green onion plants to produce seed from their globular flower heads (umbrels). As seeds develop the umbrel appears like a globe of tiny greenish-white ‘buds’. As the seed matures the heads change to a pale grey and the buds begin to open and ripe, black seeds can be seen inside the buds. Not all the seeds ripen at the same time.

Onionseed2 The usual method of collecting seed from these plants is to wait until most of the seed has ripened, then cut off the seed heads into a paper bag and leave the heads until the rest of the seed ripens and drops to the bottom of the bag. After all the seeds have been collected, they can be separated from the papery debris in the bag.
However, with this method, quite often the first seeds to ripen have dropped to the ground. I prefer to take a medium sized bowl or brown paper bag with me when I go to check the vege patch and while holding the bowl under each seed head, I give the seed head a gentle shake. The collected seed is then transferred to a labelled paper bag until all the seed has been collected. I get more seed with this method and it avoids having to separate the seed from the debris.

Scallions or Spring onions

True scallions (Allium fistulosum) that originated in the Far East do not form a bulb. Also known in Australia as spring onions or green onions, these onions are a versatile herb that are used as raw or cooked vegetables In some areas they are sold as shallots, however, true shallots (Allium aggregatum) form a light brown bulb. Scallions are harvested as required as they cannot be stored for long periods. Their pencil-thick stems and hollow green leaves provide a mild flavour used raw in salads, or cooked in many Asian dishes. Chinese herbalists value them for various medicinal properties.
Scallions are easy to grow in all climate zones in Australia, and can be ready to harvest in 8 – 10 weeks. Young seedlings respond well in a compost-rich soil and an application of weak, fermented manure tea watered in several days after transplanting.
Seed of green onions does not keep for long and seed collected for sowing next season will produce a vigorous crop as this seed will have come from plants that have adapted to your local soil and climate conditions. Leave several of your green onion plants to produce seed from their globular flower heads (umbrels).
To save seeds from your spring onions, see Spring onions – saving seed

US farmers v. Monsanto

On January 31, 2012, US family farmers will take part in the first phase of a court case filed to protect farmers from ‘genetic trespass’* by Monsanto’s GMO seed, which contaminates organic and non-GMO farmer’s crops and opens them up to abusive lawsuits. In the past two decades, Monsanto’s seed monopoly has grown so powerful that they control the genetics of nearly 90% of five major commodity crops including corn, soybeans, cotton, canola and sugar beets.
* Genetic trespass occurs when a farmer’s neighbour plants a field next to theirs that contains GMOs and the pollen containing Monsanto’s patented genes engineered in a lab blows across the fence onto their land and contaminates their crops. All seed from the contaminated crop then carries Monsanto’s patent marker and Monsanto claims ownership of the seed and any crop grown from the contaminated seed. The farmer with the contaminated crop can not only be sued by Monsanto for refusing to pay ‘technology fees’ for his own crops, but can also lose his farm if he can’t afford the court costs. Sadly most can’t afford the fight. And Monsanto knows this.
In many cases US farmers are forced to stop growing certain organic and conventional crops to avoid genetic contamination and potential lawsuits. Between 1997 and 2010, Monsanto admits to filing 144 lawsuits against America’s farmers, while settling another 700 out of court for undisclosed amounts. Due to these aggressive lawsuits, Monsanto has created an atmosphere of fear in rural America and driven dozens of farmers into bankruptcy.

GM contamination of organic and conventional crops has already begun to occur in Australia because legislation covering separation barriers for GM crops does not take into account how far bees and wind can carry pollen.
If you support the rights of conventional and organic farmers in Australia and overseas to save seed from their own crops, please show your support by signing the petition at the link below:

http://action.fooddemocracynow.org/sign/farmersvs_monsanto/

Saving seed

Annie recently e-mailed me her mother’s method of selecting fruits and pods for saving seed, and I thought it might be of interest to other readers.
“My mother grew upon a farm in the south of Italy and she has always told me little gardening tips which I don’t always see written about. This summer that just went by for various reasons she left it too late to grow her own tomato seedlings, so she purchased them at great expense from a nursery. The plants looked healthy and grew vigorously until they were quite tall and we expected a bumper crop but the plants only produced flowers – near the very tops of the plants. She had some nice tomatoes but not many and they were all at the top of the plants. She then realised that these plants were grown from seeds from tomatoes that must have grown at the very top of the plant. Because her father always told her that the seeds should only be saved from the best tomatoes near the bottom of the plant. My grandfather said that if you keep the seeds from the tomatoes near the top of the plant the genes in those seeds only produce other plants that will grow tomatoes at the tops of the plants. This is the same for beans and other climbers.”

That is a good point, Annie. However, many gardeners remove the side (axillary) shoots on tomatoes until the plant gets close to the top of the stake, and the fruit forms on the side shoots – so they won’t have fruit forming low on the plant. Another point to remember is that warm night air has an effect on the amount of fruit set on tomatoes – have you noticed that they set little, if any, fruit as nights become cooler. In many parts of this country, warm nights only start to occur when the plants have reached a good size.
It is, though, long-standing gardening advice to try to save seed from the first fruits or seed pods to form, particularly corn, beans, broad beans, peas and tomatoes, so you will have to remember to leave some side shoots on your tomato plants if you want to save seed. Seed Savers recommend saving seed from the lower three hands of fruit, but add that you can save seed from anywhere on the bush. This relates to another important seed-saving adage: “Save the best and eat the rest“.
Consequently, when saving legume seed, I only select lower pods if they are well formed and full of seed. If lower pods are small, or have gaps between the seeds, we eat those; because seed from these pods could carry the characteristic of partly-filled pods. With corn, I only save the lowest cobs if they are a good size. Your corn and legume plants will probably need netting if you want to save seed because birds are very fond of seed left to mature on plants. Keep the netting well clear of the pods or cobs you want to save, as some birds are quite clever as hooking seed through netting.
Saving pea seed Click here
Saving tomato seed Click here

Saving pea seed

peabed

Garden peas that we sowed in early May have performed very well again this year and we have been able to freeze quite a lot. We have to net our peas to protect them from birds. We use arches of polypipe supported by garden stakes to hold the netting well clear of the plants, as King Parrots are clever at hooking the pods and pulling them through the netting. Pea flowers are self-pollinating, so netting won’t affect the size of your crop.

We grow our peas in soil with a pH of around 6.5, and we prepare the bed with compost and poultry–based complete fertiliser because peas won’t fix nitrogen unless the suitable rhizobium bacterium has been introduced to the soil. Once the seedlings had poked their heads above ground, we watered regularly.

peasseed However, cropping is almost over. We have left some well-filled pods about half way up the plants to set seed. They produce better seed than those saved at the end of harvest when the plants have exhausted most of their fertiliser supply. We have been saving seed from our peas since 2006, and get good germination without treating our seeds with any fungicide. Pea seeds are easy to save. Select only full sized pods that are full of seeds and allow them to mature on netted plants until the pods are brown and dry as in the photo. Ideally, they should be left of the plants until the seeds rattle in the pods but, sometimes, we have to harvest after pods brown, if rain is forecast. Don’t harvest pods for seed when they are wet, or the seed is likely to go mouldy.

The pods are spread on a fly screen frame, indoors, until completely dry and a fingernail will not make an indentation on the seed. The peas are then shelled and any blemished ones discarded. Seed is hung in an open paper bag for another week before storing in envelopes in an airtight container in a cool place. The benefit of saving your own seed is that it comes from plants that have grown well in your local microclimate.

Saving pumpkin seed

If your pumpkin vine has performed well for you this year, it is worth saving seed from one of the best pumpkins as the plants that grow from collected seed will have already adapted to your soil and climate conditions, and pumpkin seed is very easy to save. After harvesting, store the pumpkin for 2 or 3 weeks to make sure the seeds are fully mature. Then cut the pumpkin and scoop out the seeds. Place the seeds in water and rub them to remove the pulp. Viable seeds usually sink to the bottom of the container. Rinse the seeds well, then spread the seeds on a sheet of paper to dry where mice can’t get to them. After two weeks, place seeds in a labelled jar or envelope and store in a cool, dark, dry place.