What to grow in June 2016

Oops, my apologies. I was so focused on writing the composting articles this month, I completely forgot that I hadn’t posted plantings for June.
OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAFinally, cold weather is setting in, which means it is time to start making marmalade, lemon curd or preserved lemons as citrus fruit ripens. It is also time to set up a support frame and sow broad beans and peas in temperate and cooler areas. ‘Coles Dwarf’ and ‘Egyptian’ are better varieties of broad beans for milder or windy conditions. Broad beans and peas love a humus-rich soil that is well-drained but avoid adding manures.
The following gardening advice is an abbreviated list for vegetables, fruit trees and some culinary herbs that can be planted in June in Australia and New Zealand. A comprehensive monthly guide that includes planting times for the entire garden, as well as when to fertilise, prune, weed, take cuttings or divide plants plus individual cultivation notes can be found in my book Easy Organic Gardening and Moon Planting (Scribe Publications, 2006, 2009 and 2012) – now also available as an e-book.

* For gardeners who do not use moon planting: sow or plant out any of the following list at any time this month, although you may find germination rates are lower when the Moon is in Last Quarter phase.

WARM CLIMATE South of Rockhampton
Before the Full Moon, cabbage, and grains can be sown directly into beds, as well as a green manure crop of barley, chickpea, red clover, broad bean (faba bean), field pea, or triticale. Lettuce, radicchio, English spinach and spring onions can be sown or planted out.
During First Quarter phase, dwarf peas can be sown directly into beds.
During Full Moon phase, radish and turnip can be sown directly into beds, as well as potatoes north of Brisbane. Asparagus and rhubarb crowns, fig, kiwi fruit, pecan and pistachio can be planted.

WARM CLIMATE Rockhampton and northwards
Before the Full Moon, cabbage, open Chinese cabbage, grains, lettuce, mizuna, rocket, silver beet, tatsoi, chamomile and coriander can be sown directly into beds, as well as a green manure crop of barley, corn, lablab, or triticale.
During First Quarter phase, bush and climbing beans, popcorn and sweet corn can be sown directly into beds, and pumpkin, spring onion, summer squash, tomato, watermelon and zucchini can be sown or planted out.
During Full Moon phase, beetroot, radish, turnip can be sown directly into beds, and fig and pistachio can be planted.

TEMPERATE CLIMATE
Before the Full Moon, English spinach can be sown directly into beds, as well as a green manure crop of broad bean (faba bean) or field pea. In frost-free areas, lettuce and spring onions can also be sown or planted out.
During First Quarter phase, broad beans and peas can be sown directly into beds.
During Full Moon phase, garlic and radish can be sown directly into beds, and mid season onion seedlings, asparagus and rhubarb crowns, kiwifruit and pistachio can be planted. In frost-free areas, fig can be planted.

COOL CLIMATE
Planting is extremely limited in cool climates during both June and July. Before the Full Moon, English spinach can be sown directly into beds, as well as a green manure crop of broad bean (faba bean) or field pea. Broad beans and peas grown as a vegetable can be sown during First Quarter phase.
During Full Moon phase, mid and late season onions can be sown, and asparagus and rhubarb crowns can be planted, also deciduous fruit trees and vines where frosts are not severe. In very cold areas, leave planting of deciduous trees and vines until late winter.

What to grow in May 2016

dblcompost It is International Compost Awareness Week from May 2 – 8. For those who haven’t yet discovered all the wonderful benefits of compost, I’ll be posting some tips on compost making this week.
It’s time to plant garlic in non-tropical warm climates and temperate climates. Also sow garden peas in frost-free areas directly into a garden bed with a trellis to support the plants.
Contrary to some garden guru advice, legumes do need compost or complete organic fertiliser added to the bed before sowing here as Australian soils do not naturally contain the rhizobia that fixes nitrogen in these plants. If you live in a frost-prone climate, remember that peas take about 14 weeks from sowing to harvest, and time the sowing of peas so that they will not be flowering during frost periods. The plants are frost hardy but the flowers are not. Don’t cut back asparagus plant until the foliage yellows, which is a sign that plants have withdrawn nutrients into the crowns for growth next spring.
The following gardening advice is an abbreviated list for vegetables, fruit trees and some culinary herbs that can be planted in May in Australia and New Zealand. A comprehensive monthly guide that includes planting times for the entire garden, as well as when to fertilise, prune, weed, take cuttings or divide plants plus individual cultivation notes can be found in my book Easy Organic Gardening and Moon Planting (Scribe Publications, 2006, 2009 2012) – also available as an e-book.
* For gardeners who do not use moon planting: sow or plant out any of the following list at any time this month, although you may find germination is weaker when the Moon is in Last Quarter phase.

WARM CLIMATE South of Rockhampton
Before the Full Moon, bulb fennel, open-headed Chinese cabbage, grain crops, lettuce, mizuna, radicchio, rocket, silver beet (pre-soak seed), spinach, tatsoi, chamomile and coriander can be sown directly into beds, also a green manure crop of barley, cereal rye, chick pea, white clover, faba bean, field pea, cereal rye, Japanese millet, oats, triticale, or wheat. Leek and spring onions can be sown or planted out.
During First Quarter phase, broad beans, and peas can be sown directly into beds.
During Full Moon phase, radish, turnip and garlic can be sown directly into beds, also potato north of Brisbane. Early season onion and watercress can be sown or planted out. Olive trees can be planted.

WARM CLIMATE Rockhampton and northwards
Before the Full Moon, bulb fennel, open-headed Chinese cabbage, grain crops, lettuce, mizuna, radicchio, rocket, silver beet (pre-soak seed), spinach, tatsoi and coriander can be sown directly into beds, also a green manure crop of barley, cereal rye, lablab, oats, or triticale. Fast-maturing celery, headed Chinese cabbage, leek, silver beet, spring onions, parsley, and chamomile can be sown or planted out.
During First Quarter phase, bush and climbing beans and peas and sweet corn can be sown directly into beds, and pumpkin, rock melon, summer squash, tomato, watermelon and zucchini can be sown or planted out.
During Full Moon phase, beetroot (pre-soak seed), carrot, radish and swede can be sown directly into beds, and evergreen trees, shrubs, and vines can be planted.

TEMPERATE CLIMATE
Before the Full Moon, open headed Chinese cabbage, lettuce, mizuna, spinach and tatsoi can be sown directly into beds, also a green manure crop of faba (broad) bean, field pea, barley or oats. (Cereal rye can be sown in frost-free areas.) In frost-free areas, grain crops, lettuce, radicchio and spring onions can also be sown or planted out.
During First Quarter phase, fast-maturing broccoli, broad beans, peas and chamomile can be sown directly into beds in frost-free areas. In frost areas, delay sowing broad beans and peas until June. Although the plants are frost-hardy, the flowers are not.
During Full Moon phase, radish, turnip, and garlic can be sown direct, and early season onion can be sown or planted out. In frost-free areas, strawberries can be planted out.

COOL CLIMATE
Before the Full Moon, suitable lettuce and spinach can be sown directly into beds, also a green manure crop of faba (broad) bean or field pea, oats, or triticale. Spring onions can be planted out.
First Quarter phase: broad beans and peas can be sown directly into beds in late May. Avoid sowing broad beans and peas too early in frost areas. Although the plants are frost-hardy, the flowers are not.
During Full Moon phase, radish can be sown directly into beds, and early and mid season onion can be sown or planted out. Garlic can be sown in warmer areas, and raspberry and currants can be planted from mid May.

Start weeding now

bindiiJuly and August are ideal months to get a head start on weed control. Last Quarter phase is a good phase for weeding because seed germination tends to be lower then, and you are less likely to stimulate further weed seed germination while removing weeds. Many weeds that germinate in cultivated soil are hosts to diseases and pests that damage vegetable crops.

A lawn weed that must be tackled urgently is bindiior ‘jo-jo’ (photo at left) as it is very difficult to eradicate once the spiky seed heads have formed.

You can find organic treatments for troublesome weeds in the ‘Weeding Between the Lines’ category on this blog.

Disease hosts

This is a good time of year to get a head start on weeding, as no-one likes weeding in hot weather. Leather gardening gloves or rigger’s gloves are great for weeding because they provide good protection from thorns, prickly stems, sharp edges of leaf blades, and insect or spider bites.
Weeds in the vegetable garden don’t just steal water and nutrients from your crops, many are also hosts to pests and/or diseases that can spread to your vegetables. By hosting diseases, weeds undermine your work at crop rotation to keep soil healthy.
Newly germinated weeds can be removed with a shuffle hoe, left on the bed surface, and covered with mulch. They will break down to return organic matter to topsoil. Small weeds that have not formed seed heads and are disease-free can be composted or put into worm farms. Larger weeds with seed heads must be removed and destroyed by burning, or soaking in water for an extended period, or disposed of in a sealed plastic bag. Remember the adage “One year’s seeds equals seven year’s weeds” – 15 years in some cases.
For gardening advice on removing troublesome perennial grasses and bulbous weeds, see my post on perennial weeds.

Nightshade (Solanum spp.)
The nightshade weeds are members of the same family as tomatoes, potatoes, capsicum and eggplant. Nightshade weeds (and Buffalo/Noogoora Burr) are hosts to Rhizoctonia fungi that can damage potato plants and tubers; cause collar rot in many plants, and cause damping-off in seedlings. They also provide a host to verticillium wilt that can affect a wide range of vegetables, fruit trees and ornamentals. Black Nightshade is a common weed in gardens. It grows to about 120 cm high, has groups of white (or purple-tinged) star-shaped flowers with a ring of 5 bright yellow stamens in the centre, and small green berries that blacken as they mature. Birds spread this weed by eating the berries.

Cobblers pegs (Bidens pilosa)
This weed is also known in Australia as ‘farmer’s friends’ because the barbs at the end of seeds allow the masses of seeds to cling to clothing and animal fur. Each plant produces hundreds of seeds and this weed can grow into dense stands that can quickly fill an entire bed. It is a host for root knot nematodes, tomato spotted wilt, and sclerotinia rot that can affect many crop plants. Remove and destroy these weeds while they are very small.

Onion weed and Bindii

Around this time of year, a lot of gardeners seek answers from gardening gurus, books and the internet to their onion weed or bindii problem.
Treating onion weed and oxalis with glyphosate will only kill the parent bulb – not the tiny bulbs that are loosely attached to the base of the main bulb. Onion weed also tends to be resistant to normal strength herbicides and gardeners have said that they have to use undiluted glyphosate. In garden beds, this can create other problems. Glyphosate is not broken down on contact with soil. It binds to certain soil compounds. When soil conditions change, it can become unbound and affect later crops. Soil-borne plant diseases are also more common where herbicides are used.
Get Rid of Onion Weed
For an effective way to rid your garden of onion weed, see Onion weed treatment
Get rid of Bindii
Bindii or Jo-jo needs to be treated in winter before the vicious spikey seed heads form. It is far more difficult to eradicate this weed later in the season, see Bindii treatment

Onion weed problems

A lot of gardeners seem to be having problems with onion weed lately. To compound the problem, there is some confusion about what is “onion weed”? Nothoscordum gracile, or N. inundorum, or Asphodelus fistulosus are all referred to as onion weed in various articles. Onion weed is often confused with another weed (Romulea rosea), that is known as “onion grass” or “Guilford grass”. As children, we used to call them “plum puddings”.
Basically, the treatment for all these weeds is the same and can be found on Aussie Organic Gardening in this post.
To help indenitfication, you can see images of these weeds on the links below.

Nothoscordum gracile
Asphodelus fistulosus
Onion grass

Onion weed

Onion weed (Nothoscordum inodorum) seems to cause problems for quite a few gardeners who are unsure about organic ways to be rid of this pest. I did cover onion weed previuosly in a post on perennial weeds but, as it is a common problem, it might be worth covering it separately.
It is fairly easy to eradicate it from lawns, by keeping grass growing vigorously. Healthy lawn grass will out-compete onion grass in a fairly short time and no other treatment is necessary. In fact, onion weed in lawns is merely a sign that your lawn needs a bit more TLC.
Onion weed in garden areas is an entirely different problem. Because onion weed is a perennial weed, it stores nutrients and carbohydrates in its bulbs to generate growth in the following season, in the same way as spring bulbs such as daffodils. Trying to pull out or dig up these weeds in garden areas results in the parent bulbs releasing tiny bulbs (bulbils) from the base of the main bulb. These grow into mature plants, and all the digging has achieved is multiplication of the problem.
To get rid of onion weed, you have to prevent the bulbs storing food for growth. Onion weed can also produce seed. Cutting off the foliage at ground level will prevent the plants making carbohydrates in their leaves, and also prevent seed forming.
In an unused garden area, you can do this by slashing, or mowing, the foliage to ground level, then covering the area with black plastic for several months. Anchor the edges of the plastic with planks, bricks or whatever you have to prevent it blowing away. Deprived of moisture and the sunlight that enables it to store carbon dioxide as carbohydrates (photosynthesis), the bulbs will weaken and die. Avoid using clear or light plastic, as these will still allow the plants to photosynthesize and, in some conditions, they can actually improve weed growth.
In garden beds that are being used, onion weed is more difficult to eradicate because the bulbils can be released whenever you disturb the soil. Cut off the foliage at ground level with shears to prevent it making food for the bulbs. Then mulch the beds with 5–7 cm of mulch. You may have to cut back foliage several times as soon as it appears. If you do this consistently, bulb growth will become progressively weaker, and you will eliminate the problem without disturbing the soil and stimulating the growth of more bulbs.
When you have a chance to leave a particular bed lying fallow, you can give the bed the black plastic treatment. Onion weed is more commonly found in undernourished soils, or where soil pH is unsuitable for healthy plant growth. Where onion weed has been a problem, check your soil pH, and improve organic matter content in soil to prevent the problem recurring.

Perennial weeds

In order to eradicate problem weeds, including Nut Grass, Onion Weed, Sour-sob (Oxalis), and Tradescantia (Wandering Jew/Creeping Jesus), it is necessary to understand how these plants reproduce, because merely digging, or pulling out, these weeds is rarely successful.
Wandering Jew or Creeping Jesus is a weed of moist, shaded places. It produces extra roots at the stem joints where they touch the ground. The stems snap easily when pulled, allowing small pieces of stem to remain in soil and produce new plants, making it difficult to completely eleiminate in one go.
You can tackle this weed by whipper-snipping or cutting off as much above ground growth as possible. Rake it up and dispose of it in a sealed plastic bag. Then cover the area with black plastic or weed mat anchored around the edges. It likes damp soil, so the black plastic is best – it will prevent rain getting to the soil. Excluding light also prevents the plants from manufacturing food for future growth. Then, the most important part is to go around the outer edges of the plastic with a sharp spade and cut through any underground runners that may be extending beyond the plastic, otherwise these parts will keep supplying the runners under the plastic with food and moisture to grow. It can take up to a couple of months to kill off this weed.

Nut grass, onion weed, and Oxalis or Sour-sob release small bulbs (bulbils) into the soil when plants are pulled out, or when soil is disturbed by digging, which rapidly increases the number of weeds. During each growing season, these weeds use sunlight, carbon dioxide and water to manufacture glucose to use for energy. The glucose is stored in the bulbs and bulbils during a period of dormancy to be used for growth in the next season (in the same way as spring flowering bulbs).
The way to eliminate this type of weed is to prevent them manufacturing food through the green parts of the plant. This can be done by excluding light and water for a couple of months with thick cardboard or black plastic. If these weeds are a problem where they are close to plants, repeatedly cutting off the foliage at ground level will eliminate them.
If they are growing in a lawn area, improve fertilisation and watering of the lawn. A healthy, vigorous lawn will smother these weeds.

Lawn into garden

If you want to convert some of your lawn to a garden, the obvious first step is to get rid of the grass. This is easier said than done with Couch and Kikuyu. Any pieces of runner left in the soil will re-shoot and become a pest in your garden beds. Lawn grasses are perennial, which means they are long-lived and able to regrow from stored nutrients after a period of dormancy.
All green plants require sunlight, carbon dioxide and water to manufacture glucose that they use for energy, and we have to deprive them of these in order to kill the grass without using poisons. You can exclude light with pieces of thick cardboard, a very thick layer of mulch, or a sheet of black plastic. I’ve found black plastic works best because it absorbs heat and speeds the process. Clear or white plastic won’t exclude light, and can actually increase growth in some conditions. The light-excluding cover will have to be weighted around the edges with some stones or scraps of timber.
Now comes the most important step. Go around the outer edge of the plastic with a sharp spade and cut through the grass runners. If you don’t do this, the runners outside the plastic can keep supplying water and glucose to the covered grass, and it won’t die off.
The time taken to kill the grass will vary according to the climate. In warm, dry conditions it can be completely killed off in 4–6 weeks. The dead grass and roots will break down to provide valuable organic matter to soil.
Avoid using herbicides to kill the grass. Recent research published by the US Department of Agriculture has shown that glyphosate can stimulate the growth of Fusarium Wilt pathogens in soil. This disease can affect many food crops, and is difficult to eliminate once established.

Bindii

bindii.jpg
Bindii (Soliva pterosperma), or “Jo-Jo” as it is called in some places, is a delicate-looking lawn weed that produces carrot-top or ferny foliage. In late winter and early spring, it produces spiky seed heads that attach themselves to the soles of shoes, and make sitting on grass a painful experience. This diabolical weed has to be eliminated in early winter before the seed heads form. You can do this during any moon phase if seed heads haven’t formed. By the time the plants produce seed heads, the branches will also produce roots and complete removal will be difficult.
If you don’t have a steam or flame weeder, young plants are easy to dig out in early winter. If weather has been dry, watering with undiluted urine that has a strong ammonia smell can also burn them off, but this method does not work well when soil is moist. Bindii can also be spot-sprayed with undiluted vinegar. Spraying may have to be repeated. Bindii is more common where lawns are undernourished, as vigorous lawns usually out-compete this weed. In late winter, water the lawn and fertilise with organic complete fertiliser and organic seaweed tea. Granulated poultry based fertilisers are easy to apply to lawns. And do not mow the lawn too short – raise the mower a notch or two. Very short lawns weaken turf growth and encourage weeds to establish.