Moving trees and shrubs

Sometimes it is necessary to move an established tree or shrub. Deciduous plants can be moved in winter or early spring, and evergreen plants in spring. This is best done in two stages if you have to move an evergreen plant, but sometimes situations arise, due to weather conditions or moving house where a shrub or tree has to be moved urgently.
This advice is for moving trees and shrubs small enough not to require the assistance of mechanical equipment.
dripline1

  1. Dig a deep trench around the plant you want to move, using a sharp spade to cut through the roots. The trench will usually have to be dug inside the drip-line of the plant, otherwise the root ball will be too large to handle. The drip-line is the area of soil directly below the outer edges of the foliage – where rain runs off the leaf canopy onto the soil. This is where the feeder roots usually lie.
  2. Water the area thoroughly, but do not apply fertiliser. Then prune back the foliage, or remove whole branches in the case of frangipani. This is necessary to compensate for a smaller root ball, so that the plant will not suffer water stress.
  3. If possible, leave evergreen plants in position for about a month, watering it regularly. This will help the plant to produce some feeder roots within the reduced root ball area.
  4. When ready to move the plant, make sure the soil is damp. Get a large piece of hessian, shadecloth or weed mat and some cord. This will help to keep the root ball intact during transplanting. A trolley, or tarpaulin or another large piece of strong fabric will help to use as a sled to drag the plant to its new planting position if the plant is too large to lift into a barrow.
  5. First dig the hole where the plant is to be positioned. Fill the hole with water. This is important for two reasons. How quickly the hole drains indicates whether drainage is good or you will need to plant the tree or shrub in a raised mound. If the surrounding soil is not damp when you transplant, the water you apply after planting will be drawn away from the root ball into the surrounding dry soil, and the plant will look stressed several days after planting.
  6. Work the spade around the trench dug previously, easing the spade further and further under the root ball until you have cut through all the roots.
  7. Place a clear mark on the north-facing side of the plant so that it will be positioned in the same orientation.
  8. Ease the fabric gently under the root ball. It will be much easier if someone helps by slowly tilting the plant to one side. Gather the fabric around the root ball and tie with cord.
  9. Carefully transfer the plant to the new hole positioning it at the same level it was planted previously. Untie the fabric and gently ease it out from under the root ball.
  10. Fill the hole with soil, adding some compost, if available. Do not trample the soil around the plant. Water thoroughly to remove any air pockets around the roots, and apply a 5 cm layer of mulch around the plant, keeping it a hand span from the trunk. Job done.

Staking a replanted tree or shrub will stabilise it until it becomes established in its new position. Gardening Australia has an excellent video on how to support plants using 3 stakes. See: 3 stake method

** Please note: Moving Eucalyptus taller than 45 cm, or other plants that have tap roots is often unsuccessful.

Zing ginger

stemginger Recently, I received a sample of certified-organic Zing ginger, and it certainly suits its name. It was grown on Bauer’s Organic Farm in the Lockyer Valley. Rob Bauer is a very knowledgeable and dedicated certified-organic farmer and I always look out for his produce when shopping.
We use a lot of stem ginger, especially in stir fries, but it does not grow at its best in our area. At this time of year, we also make a delicious grapefruit and ginger cordial to use our excess fruit.
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is an amazing herb. We all tend to add ginger to foods for flavour, however, ginger has a range of medicinal properties and you can find these are listed on the Zing website, although they seem to have forgotten its long history as a preventative for motion sickness. The Zing ginger site also provides 101 recipes of the many, different ways you can use this wonderful plant root.
Zing ginger can be found at Woolworths supermarkets.

Bees and lavender

Beelavender Bees love lavender, and because French lavender* flowers during winter, it provides them with nourishment when there is little else in flower. Lavender is known for its calming effect on people and it has the same effect on bees. A hardy plant, French lavender prefers a gravelly soil with a close to neutral pH. It is an efficient water user and requires little complete fertiliser, suits warmer climates, makes an attractive hedge, and is happy in beds or a large pot. All it needs is a light hair cut when flowering has finished.
Bee numbers are declining around the world. This is a matter for concern for all of us as we rely on bees to pollinate a good number of our fruits and vegetables. As well as growing some French lavender or some winter-flowering annuals, please ensure you keep some clean water available in your garden as bees need clean water, too. Many drown each year from trying to drink chlorinated pool water. A bird bath or large plant saucer, regularly topped up with clean water, is all they need.
* French Lavender (Lavendula dentata) is also known as Toothed Lavender, so named for the edges of its leaves.

Flies around fruit bowl

Drosophila-wikipedia Column 8 in today’s Sydney Morning Herald stated that Sydneysiders’ kitchens have been infested by fruit flies, stating that, “They emerge from fruit and hang around all summer”. The flies referred to are not fruit flies, they are the very small vinegar or ferment flies (Drosophila). Genuine fruit flies are kept out by fly screens. Vinegar flies emerge from fruit, tomatoes, etc. as grubs (larvae) and require pupation outside the fruit in order to complete their life cycle as a fly. If these tiny pests are a persistent problem, there must be a breeding ground nearby or the kitchen needs more regular cleaning.
Vinegar flies are attracted to the smell of yeast in fermenting organic materials and drains. To eliminate the problem:

  • Do not keep fruit at room temperature in warm, humid weather
  • Cover compost and garbage containers
  • Regularly rinse out garbage containers
  • Rinse beer and wine containers before recycling
  • and treat drains with an enzyme product to break down thick scum where they can feed and reproduce.

Genuine fruit flies, the Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Ceratitis capitata) and Queensland Fruit Fly (Dacus tryoni) cause a lot of destruction in gardens. They require pupation in soil after the maggots emerge from fruit. To reduce the problem of genuine fruit flies, collect all fallen fruit, put it in a sealed black garbage bag and leave the bag in the sun for three or four days to cook the larvae (and encourage your neighbours to do the same). Never put infected fruit in the compost container.

Koalas – help please

joeypouchesIFAW has been astonished by the most generous response to their call for koala mittens and now have more than sufficient for current needs.
If you would still like to help injured animals, they are in need of
pouches for orphaned joeys that can be made from old cotton or flannelette sheets.

Completed pouches can be mailed to: IFAW at 6 Belmore Street, Surry Hills 2010

01_6_15_koala2_0
The International Fund for Animal Welfare (IFAW) is asking for volunteers to make mittens for koalas that suffer from burnt paws during bushfires. We have already had some devastating bushfires this year and the bushfire season is just beginning.

The mittens are easy to make from old cotton pillowcases or sheets (cotton breathes, polycotton doesn’t), and some leftover wool for ties. Burnt paws are bandaged and the mittens go over the bandages. Raw edges of the mittens stay on the outside of the mittens so that the koalas’ claws don’t catch on any loose threads. They need a lot of mittens as each koala has four paws and the mittens have to be changed daily.
If you can help our little native animals with this project, thank you very much.

Bees welcome

Beelvdr2 Although we do not use pesticides, in recent years we have noticed fewer bees in our garden. In response we have set up a hive under a white mulberry tree, and added a ‘bee garden’ in a corner of our vege patch. I’ve planted a short hedge of French Lavender (Lavandula dentata) that flowers from late autumn to mid spring, when few other flowers bloom. I’ve also added some Borage (Borago officinalis) as a treat for bees, and some Manuka shrubs (Leptospermum scoparium) to add its healing benefits to our honey.
The decline in bee numbers has become a global problem, with the United States losing  45 per cent of their bees and Europe has 13 million less bee colonies. It is a very serious problem because many of the foods we eat depend on bee pollination to produce crops or seed. If bee numbers continue to decline you can forget about having honey, the cost of manual pollination of crops would be exorbitant and many foods will become a luxury (See list below). Colony Collapse Disorder is the most puzzling aspect of this decline, where bees leave their hives and just disappear over winter.
In the past, CCD has been blamed on diseases, mites, poor nutrition, or Manuka Shrubpesticides, particularly the neurotoxic neonicotinoids. Last year, research at Harvard University found that long exposure to small amounts of two neonicotinoids (imidacloprid and clothianidin) are the likely cause of CCD. The European Union has already banned the use of three neonicotinoids, Unfortunately, Australia, that lags behind Europe in environmental issues, still allows the use of these pesticides.

TO ENCOURAGE BEES TO YOUR GARDEN:

Borage They need clean water, pollen and nectar. Keep a shallow container of clean water (e.g. birdbath) in your garden, and choose shrubs and annuals that flower in different months to provide a continuous supply of pollen and nectar. Both native bees and honey bees love our native shrubs. And, don’t use pesticides that harm bees. Read labels and Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) carefully before use. Your garden will benefit greatly from the presence of these tiny, hard-working creatures.

Common foods that need bees to produce, fruits, nuts, vegetables and seed
Apple, Apricot, Blueberry, Boysenberry, Cherry, All Citrus, Cranberry, Cucumber, Currants, Custard Apple, Elderberry, Feijoa, Gooseberry, Grapes, Guavas, Kiwifruit, Melons, Nectarine, Papaya, Passionfruit, Pawpaw, Peach, Pear, Persimmon, Plum, Pomegranate, Quince, Raspberry, Starfruit, Strawberry, Almond, Brazil, Cashew, Chestnut, Coconut, Hazelnut, Macadamia, Walnut, Marrows, Okra, Pumpkin, Squash, Zucchini.
Common foods that need bees to produce seed
Beetroot, Broad bean, Broccoli, Brussels sprouts, Buckwheat, Cabbages, Canola, Caraway, Carrot, Cauliflower, Celery, Chinese vegetables, Clover, Coriander, Cotton, Cowpea, Dill, Fennel, Linseed, Lucerne, Mustard, Nasturtium, Onions, Parsley, Parsnip, Pigeon pea, Radish, Rocket, Scarlet runner, Sesame, Silverbeet, Turnip.

http://www.businessinsider.com.au/harvard-study-links-pesticides-to-colony-collapse-disorder-2014-5
http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2014/jan/08/uk-food-security-honeybees

False spring

cloche Chilly days and nights after a brief period of perfect gardening weather occur every year in many parts of Australia. Australia is the only place where spring is said to start on the first day of September. Everywhere else, spring starts at the equinox when day and night are of equal length. This year, the spring equinox occurs on September 23rd.
Unfortunately, Australia’s deviation from world-wide practice tricks some gardeners into planting out seedlings while nights are still longer than days and soil is still too cold for root growth of warmth-loving plants. The problem can be solved by placing this simple cloche over beds that contain cold-sensitive seedlings. See: Cloche for seedlings.

Green energy

SolarpanelsMany gardeners not only love their gardens, they care about the environment and are interested in green energy. This Green Electricity Guide, produced by Greenpeace, contains excellent information on how ‘green’ your power supply company really is, and I thought I would share it with you.

Green Electricity Guide

Microbats

Microbat This odd little character often hangs out on our front verandah. He is one of the many species of microbat found in Australia and is 6 cm long when he is all tucked up and asleep. The reason he is odd is that he is always alone, eschewing the company of the colony of microbats we see dashing between the tree tops at dusk, and he sleeps on our verandah at night when bats normally forage for food.

Microbats are very helpful in the garden as they consume a huge quantity of mosquitos, moths and other insect pests. If you are fortunate enough to have a colony of microbats on your property, please avoid using chemical pesticides.

Windy weather update

Transpiratiion Predictions are for more cold, windy weather on the way. Keep a close watch on your garden as wind can dry out soils faster than summer heat, resulting in cell collapse of soft tissue plants. To discover why this happens and how to protect your plants, see: Windy weather
Seedlings and many vegetable crops are vulnerable to wind damage in winter and early spring. Ripening citrus are also easily damaged by strong winds.