Most seeds germinate in dark, damp conditions and need to be covered with a suitable depth of topsoil. However, some seeds need light for successful germination.
In the vegetable patch, only varieties of lettuce, Cape Gooseberry, Tomatillo and the Asian greens Seakale and Shiso are ‘light responsive’, but a number of herb and flower species also require light for germination. These include: Angelica, Anise, Arnica, Ashwaganda, Caraway, Catnip, Chamomile, Chervil, Dill, Echinacea, Elecampagne, Evening primrose, Feverfew, Gazania, Lady’s Mantle, Lemon Balm, Mignonette, Rosemary, Summer and Winter Savory, Valerian, Watercress, Wormwood and Yarrow.
Sowing seed for these plants can cause difficulties as the seed is merely pressed into the soil surface and require close attention to prevent them drying, resulting in germination failure. Or, they are scattered on the surface of a punnet where they can be easily washed into clumps at the edge of the punnet despite careful watering.
A way to avoid problems with these seeds is to fill a punnet with damp seedling mix and then cover the surface of the punnet with a single layer of gravel or small pebbles. Then sprinkle the seeds sparingly over the gravel and water very gently, being careful not to flood the surface. The gravel provides crevices for the seed to settle while still allowing them to receive light, and also helps to keep the growing mix damp for germinating seeds.
Forecasters are warning of more hot days to come. During heat waves, pot plants become stressed more quickly than plants in garden beds, and your pot plants may not getting as much water as you think.
If potting mix dries out, the first sign may be complete collapse of a plant. If you water dry potting mix in the normal way with a hose or watering can, your plants may not be getting as much water as you think. This is because potting mix shrinks slightly when it dries, leaving a narrow gap between the mix and the pot. When you water, most of it runs into the gap and out through the drainage holes, leaving the mix around the roots still dry. Seedling punnets and smaller pots can be thoroughly watered by immersing the entire pot in a bucket half filled with water, or use a laundry tub if a lot of pots need reviving.
Water should come over the top of the pot. Leave the pot in the water until bubbles cease to rise. Short term immersion won’t hurt the plants. Then lift the pot allowing it to drain into the bucket or tub. This method of watering also works very well when your water supply for plants is strictly limited.
For pots too large to be immersed in a container, fill some large soft drink or juice containers and insert 2 or 3 neck down into the potting mix. Provide support if necessary and allow them to empty slowly into the mix. Re-fill the bottles and repeat watering until water is being drawn into the mix very slowly. If heat is likely to continue for some time, place some mulch or stones on the surface of the potting mix to slow evaporation.
Potting mix can become incredibly hot when pots are in full sun. During extreme heat conditions move pot plants to a cooler spot, including under trees. Grouping them together helps retain humidity around the plants and reduces water loss through the leaves.
With some women it’s shoes or handbags, but with me it’s seeds, so I have to practice restraint when I go to Greenpatch Organic Seeds, as I did recently. Greenpatch supply a wide range of open-pollinated, organic seeds for vegetables, herbs, flowers, and grains, grasses and sprouts. You may have seen their seeds for sale at nurseries. Organic, open-pollinated seeds are not hybrids or GM seeds, and that means you will be able to save seeds from your crop for next season. Open-pollinated vegetable seed varieties are grown for flavour and vigour rather than shelf life.
Many of the seeds are produced at Greenpatch, but where cross-pollination can be a problem, other varieties are produced by local growers. I like buying organic seed that is produced in Australia because the seed comes from plants that have adapted to Australian soils and seasons. Previously, I had found that imported seed did not perform particularly well, and I achieved better results from seed I saved from those plants. We do save seeds from some of our crops but saving seed from all our vegetables and herbs can tie up garden beds for long periods while the seed matures, and being able to buy locally-produced seed makes life much easier.
Greenpatch also has a huge selection of fruiting plants, herbs, cottage garden and aquatic plants. Neville and Sophia have been producing seeds and plants on their farm for 20 years, and you can order seeds and plants by mail but, as Greenpatch is just off the freeway at Taree and only a short drive from our farm, I enjoy paying a visit and browsing through their stock for plants to add to our collection. You can see their catalogue at Greenpatch Organic Seeds.
When spring bulbs have finished flowering, don’t forget to allow the foliage to die back before lifting bulbs. It is important to leave the foliage because the yellowing and fading occurs as the plants withdraw nutrients from the leaves to store in the bulbs for next season’s growth. Depriving spring bulbs of this essential part of their growth cycle will result in poor, or no, flowering next spring.
The autumn equinox (when day and night are of equal length) occurred on Tuesday, March 20th, this year. Days are becoming shorter than nights now, and it is time to prepare soil for planting spring-flowering bulbs. These plants thrive in a compost-rich soil with some complete organic complete fertiliser added. Gardeners in Cool climates and New Zealand can plant bulbs now. However, as these bulbs grow better after a period of chilling, gardeners in warmer areas can put bulbs into the vegetable crisper of the fridge for about a month before planting.
Bulbs are normally planted at a depth twice the width of the bulb. In Warm climates, plant suitable bulbs up to twice as deep as indicated on the packet. After planting, mulch the area in early morning when the soil is cooler and keep the planted area just damp until growth appears. For moon planters, Full Moon phase is the best time to plant bulbs.
I often receive e-mails with questions about growing frangipani trees, and some readers may like to try growing them from seed. Paula Pugh Schipp of the Frangipani Society of Australia says that frangipani trees grown from seed grow much faster than those grown from cuttings because the root system starts to form when the seed germinates. Another advantage of propagating these lovely (Plumeria) trees from seed is that trees grown from cuttings will always be the same as the parent tree, but trees grown from seed are, like children, not usually exact duplicates of their parents. You may grow a tree with flowers with an entirely different colour combination if you have a variety of frangipani trees in your area.
Frangipani flowers do not always produce seed as the self-pollinating flowers do not always release their pollen. You can try hand-pollinating flowers with a piece of thick fishing line. Place the end of the line deep into the flower and wriggle it very gently to release the pollen. You have to be gentle as it is easy to knock the flower from its stem.
Seeds develop within a pod, often a double pod in a ‘T ‘ shape, which looks rather like two thin 17 cm zucchini in the early stages – changing over time to brown/black when mature (see photo, lower left). Pods can take up to 8 months to mature depending on the local microclimate.
When the seeds are mature, the pods become brittle and begin to split open revealing up to 60 seeds in each pod. Collecting the seed takes a bit of good timing because each of the seeds has a small ‘wing’ attached and, when the pod completely opens, the seeds can be spread far and wide on the breeze (see photo, below right). If the pod is in a position where you can easily observe its development, when the pod is just beginning to split, place a large basin under the pod structure and carefully cut the adjoining stem from the tree. If the pod is high in the tree and hidden by foliage, then when the pod starts to change colour, make a bag from nylon netting large enough to hold the pod structure with some room to spare. The will prevent the seeds from blowing away when the pod opens.
If you would like to try growing frangipani from seed, for best results sow them soon after they are collected.
This excellent Frangipani website provides a detailed guide to propagating frangipani, including an interesting method of germinating seed in paper towels: Frangipani Society of Australia
One of our readers, Sam, has shared some photos of his very successful efforts.
Bromeliads are an interesting group of plants with over 800 varieties. Some bromeliads are epiphytic (grow on trees or other objects for support) while some require soil for their roots – including the most well-known member of the family – the pineapple plant (Ananas comosus). Bromeliads are very easy to grow in warm and temperate climates, and have an amazing range of foliage and flower shapes and colours. Most bromeliads grow in a rosette form with a central well, and their unusual flowers grow from the central well.
The blade leaves of bromeliads funnel a lot of water into the central well, providing moisture for insects and other small creatures in times of drought, and the insects provide organic matter to fertilise the plants. This regular supply of food and water also attracts frogs.
If you like having frogs in your garden, try growing some bromeliad genera with soft, leathery, broad leaves – for example Aechmea, Neoregalia, Vriesea or Bilbergia, which grow best in part shade around the base of trees. These bromeliads rely mostly on their central well for water and food, and use soil mainly for support. The rosette of leaves also provides a hiding place for frogs.
Plant in autumn in warmer areas or spring where winters are cold. Grey-leaved bromeliads absorb moisture from the atmosphere and do not need soil, and bromeliads with heavily barbed leaves do best in acidic soil in full sun.
If new leaves on Camellia plants become thick and very pale green or pink, and the underside of the leaf starts becoming white – the plant is suffering from ‘Camellia leaf gall’. This is a fungal disease that affects tender new growth of Camellia sasanqua (and sometimes Camellia reticulata), especially in very humid or wet, shady conditions. Fungal diseases are a sign that growing conditions are stressing your plants and their immune system is compromised. There is no organic or chemical treatment for this disease. However, an application of seaweed extract tea will help to strengthen the cell walls of the affected plants and make them more resistant to disease.
But, first the affected growth must be removed, preferably before the undersides of leaves develop white spores. You will need a baked bean tin containing about 5 cm of methylated spirits to sterilize secateurs blades, and a large garbage bag for the prunings. Prune off all affected growth (swish the open secateurs in the spirits often while pruning) and place it directly into the garbage bag. Also collect in the bag any fallen leaves as they can harbour the fungal spores that will activate this disease again when conditions are suitable. Seal the bag and put it in the garbage if you are unable to burn the leaves. Do not compost them. Then give the soil around the plants a drink of seaweed extract at the recommended strength, and protect the soil surface with 3–5 cm of fresh mulch. Make sure your camellias are watered when the top centimetre of soil is dry, but afford watering the foliage. Also give the plants an annual application of compost or complete organic fertiliser and seaweed extract tea in late winter.
See below, how affected new growth appears, and close-up of affected leaves.
A New Zealand gardener is having trouble with her potted frangipani. I am posting my reply separately as other gardeners may have had a similar problem:
I live in Auckland NZ. I have white frangipani over 1.5m tall in a large pot. It last flowered about 4 years ago which was it’s first year in the pot. Now we are getting good leaf growth and new stems in the summer but the new stems rot in the winter and we have to cut them off.
There are several reasons why new growth on frangipanis can rot in winter – (1) water-logging of the mixture while the tree is dormant. (2) Lack of nutrients, such as potassium, which strengthens cell walls as well as promoting flowering. Have you given the tree any fertiliser? (3) Its position in winter is too cold for a tropical tree.
Remedies for (1) and (2): If your tree has been in the pot for 4 years, it is quite possible the roots have blocked the drainage hole/s, and that is causing the softer, new growth to rot when the tree is not using the moisture in the pot. Or, perhaps the holes have become blocked if the pot is in direct contact with the ground. Frangipanis form lots of roots and they must have good drainage.
As their roots are rather brittle, if you can’t remove the root ball from the pot easily, lie the pot on its side and hose out the potting mixture. Then carefully re-pot it into a larger pot with fresh potting mix that contains some complete fertiliser, and gently water it to settle the mix around the roots. If you can’t find a larger pot for the tree, trim the longest roots (so that they will have to grow about 5 cm to fill the pot) and re-pot in fresh mix in the same pot. Sit the pot on some pieces of tile so that the drainage holes remain clear of the soil.
Remedy for (3): Even the white frangipani (which is the hardiest) will not do well if temperatures are too low or they are in windy positions. When growing frangipanis in temperate zones, on the north side of a wall is a good position for them. A brick or concrete wall is best because the wall absorbs heat during the day and releases it slowly at night, keeping the air around the tree slightly warmer.
Greenpatch Organic Seeds have released their mail order catalogue for 2001-12. They have added many new Heritage vegetable, flowering annual and herb varieties to their range. They also have 230 varieties of potted plants, tubers and bulbs that can be delivered to you in all states except Tasmania and Western Australia. As Greenpatch is in our neighbourhood, I had a lovely time last week at Greenpatch browsing through their seeds, plants and books for things to add to my collection. Like us, Greenpatch is certified-organic with the Organic Growers of Australia. All their seeds are non-GM, non-hybrid and open-pollinated, so that you can save seed of your favourite varieties from your own crop.
You can ask for a catalogue by e-mailing: firstname.lastname@example.org or download a catalogue from their secure website.