Bees welcome

Beelvdr2 Although we do not use pesticides, in recent years we have noticed fewer bees in our garden. In response we have set up a hive under a white mulberry tree, and added a ‘bee garden’ in a corner of our vege patch. I’ve planted a short hedge of French Lavender (Lavandula dentata) that flowers from late autumn to mid spring, when few other flowers bloom. I’ve also added some Borage (Borago officinalis) as a treat for bees, and some Manuka shrubs (Leptospermum scoparium) to add its healing benefits to our honey.
The decline in bee numbers has become a global problem, with the United States losing  45 per cent of their bees and Europe has 13 million less bee colonies. It is a very serious problem because many of the foods we eat depend on bee pollination to produce crops or seed. If bee numbers continue to decline you can forget about having honey, the cost of manual pollination of crops would be exorbitant and many foods will become a luxury (See list below). Colony Collapse Disorder is the most puzzling aspect of this decline, where bees leave their hives and just disappear over winter.
In the past, CCD has been blamed on diseases, mites, poor nutrition, or Manuka Shrubpesticides, particularly the neurotoxic neonicotinoids. Last year, research at Harvard University found that long exposure to small amounts of two neonicotinoids (imidacloprid and clothianidin) are the likely cause of CCD. The European Union has already banned the use of three neonicotinoids, Unfortunately, Australia, that lags behind Europe in environmental issues, still allows the use of these pesticides.

TO ENCOURAGE BEES TO YOUR GARDEN:

Borage They need clean water, pollen and nectar. Keep a shallow container of clean water (e.g. birdbath) in your garden, and choose shrubs and annuals that flower in different months to provide a continuous supply of pollen and nectar. Both native bees and honey bees love our native shrubs. And, don’t use pesticides that harm bees. Read labels and Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) carefully before use. Your garden will benefit greatly from the presence of these tiny, hard-working creatures.

Common foods that need bees to produce, fruits, nuts, vegetables and seed
Apple, Apricot, Blueberry, Boysenberry, Cherry, All Citrus, Cranberry, Cucumber, Currants, Custard Apple, Elderberry, Feijoa, Gooseberry, Grapes, Guavas, Kiwifruit, Melons, Nectarine, Papaya, Passionfruit, Pawpaw, Peach, Pear, Persimmon, Plum, Pomegranate, Quince, Raspberry, Starfruit, Strawberry, Almond, Brazil, Cashew, Chestnut, Coconut, Hazelnut, Macadamia, Walnut, Marrows, Okra, Pumpkin, Squash, Zucchini.
Common foods that need bees to produce seed
Beetroot, Broad bean, Broccoli, Brussels sprouts, Buckwheat, Cabbages, Canola, Caraway, Carrot, Cauliflower, Celery, Chinese vegetables, Clover, Coriander, Cotton, Cowpea, Dill, Fennel, Linseed, Lucerne, Mustard, Nasturtium, Onions, Parsley, Parsnip, Pigeon pea, Radish, Rocket, Scarlet runner, Sesame, Silverbeet, Turnip.

http://www.businessinsider.com.au/harvard-study-links-pesticides-to-colony-collapse-disorder-2014-5
http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2014/jan/08/uk-food-security-honeybees

Windy weather update

Transpiratiion Predictions are for more cold, windy weather on the way. Keep a close watch on your garden as wind can dry out soils faster than summer heat, resulting in cell collapse of soft tissue plants. To discover why this happens and how to protect your plants, see: Windy weather
Seedlings and many vegetable crops are vulnerable to wind damage in winter and early spring. Ripening citrus are also easily damaged by strong winds.

Garlic planting time – again

garlic1 March and April are good months for planting garlic in temperate to warmer parts of Australia. This year we are going back to growing the ‘Italian White‘ variety as our winters are becoming too mild for the hard-necked varieties. ‘Italian White‘ is a soft-necked garlic more suited to warmer areas. Cloves are slightly smaller than the purple hard-necked garlic but it has a lovely flavour and keeps longer than the hard-neck varieties.

We will sow ours in the middle of April (during Full Moon phase), after separating the knobs into individual cloves. The larger cloves from each knob will be planted, flat end down, just below the surface into soil rich in compost with a pH close to neutral. We usually plant our cloves 15 cm apart in rows 30 cm apart so that the canopy formed by the leaves helps to keep the mulched soil cooler. Garlic needs regular, deep watering (not a daily sprinkle) and hates competing with weeds. Green Harvest has a range of garlic for planting, and their garlic page will help you to decide which variety is best suited to your local climate and needs.

If you want to grow a small quantity of garlic from knobs purchased from your greengrocer, make sure it is Australian garlic. Imported garlic is treated with methyl bromide, a nasty gas that has been banned in Europe and may prevent cloves from growing.
Garlic takes 6 to 8 months to develop a bulb depending on the variety and climate.

Scallions or Spring onions

True scallions (Allium fistulosum) that originated in the Far East do not form a bulb. Also known in Australia as spring onions or green onions, these onions are a versatile herb that are used as raw or cooked vegetables In some areas they are sold as shallots, however, true shallots (Allium aggregatum) form a light brown bulb. Scallions are harvested as required as they cannot be stored for long periods. Their pencil-thick stems and hollow green leaves provide a mild flavour used raw in salads, or cooked in many Asian dishes. Chinese herbalists value them for various medicinal properties.
Scallions are easy to grow in all climate zones in Australia, and can be ready to harvest in 8 – 10 weeks. Young seedlings respond well in a compost-rich soil and an application of weak, fermented manure tea watered in several days after transplanting.
Seed of green onions does not keep for long and seed collected for sowing next season will produce a vigorous crop as this seed will have come from plants that have adapted to your local soil and climate conditions. Leave several of your green onion plants to produce seed from their globular flower heads (umbrels).
To save seeds from your spring onions, see Spring onions – saving seed

Excess figs

Brown Turkey Our ‘Brown Turkey’ tree has produced lots of lovely, sweet figs this hot, dry summer – far too many for the two of us to eat. Not wanting to waste any of these delicious fruits, I searched my recipe books for a way to use the excess figs and came across a recipe for fig and ginger conserve. With a slight variation in the method from the original recipe it produces a thick jam that is scrumptious on crackers with some Brie or tasty cheese.

FIG AND GINGER CONSERVE
1 kg ripe figs
1/2 cup orange juice
2 Tablespoons lemon juice
1 Tablespoon sweet sherry
1 1/2 Tablespoons grated fresh ginger
2 cups sugar

Gently wash figs, remove stems and chop roughly.
Combine figs, juices, sherry and ginger in a saucepan. Bring to the boil and simmer, covered, until figs are soft (about 15¬20 minutes).
Stir in sugar over simmering heat until sugar is dissolved. Bring mixture to the boil, reduce heat to simmer and stir continuously to prevent sticking until mixture is quite thick.
Transfer mixture to hot sterilised jars, and seal.

Strawberries – starting new plants

strawbrrs

Vigorous, young strawberry plants produce the best berries. As strawberry cropping slows, plants produce long horizontal stems (runners). Along each runner a small plantlet begins to form and tiny white roots will appear at the base – see photos below. Vigorous runners can produce two or three plantlets along each runner. If you remove mulch from the area under each new plantlet and anchor plantlets to the soil surface by placing a stone on the runner on the parent side of each plantlet, you can produce many new plants for your strawberry patch. Anchoring plantlets in this way allows the crown of the plantlet to sit on the soil surface. (Strawberry crowns will rot if buried.) If your strawberry bed contains plenty of organic matter, all you need to do is give the bed a drink of seaweed extract tea to stimulate root growth and build disease resistance, and keep the soil damp. Otherwise, add a handful of mature compost to the soil surface under each plantlet. Each parent plant will provide nourishment to the new plants until they develop enough roots to grow independently.

strawbrnr1 strawbrnr2

 

 

 

 

 

When plantlets are well established in autumn, the runners connecting them to the parent plant can be cut, and the new plants can be left where they are or transplanted to a new spot.
Tip: While strawberries are still cropping, place a marker beside the plants that produce the best berries and only use the runners from these plants to improve the quality of produce in your strawberry patch.

Heat wave protection

Some parts of Australia are enduring extremely hot weather and, apparently, there is more to come this summer. Periods of intense heat can cause scorching in many gardens.
Although European-based garden texts recommend full sun for most vegetables, where summers are hot and air pollution is low, full sun can result in sunscald. While Australian natives have evolved to restrict loss of water through leaves in hot, dry conditions, very hot plants, especially those that originated in cooler Northern Hemisphere regions – such as most of our vegetables and fruits, lose a lot of water through their leaves in an effort to keep cool, in a similar way to humans perspiring.

A bit of shade
shdeclth Providing some light shade during the hottest part of the day can prevent sunscald on susceptible crops, and, by keeping the plants cooler, reduces their water consumption, an important consideration where water restrictions apply. We use lightweight, knitted shade cloth, supported by arches made from 38 mm irrigation pipe attached to garden stakes or star stakes, or you can use old light-weight curtains or sheets.
Each canopy is positioned to allow morning sun to reach plants, yet not restrict air flow around them. Poor air flow (such as in fully enclosed areas) can produce conditions suitable for some fungal diseases to establish. Instructions for making these can be found in the post Sun and heat protection.
However, in an emergency, any old curtains or pieces of lightweight fabric will do. Tie the corners to garden stakes to provide some relief for garden beds during the hottest part of the day.
If possible, move potted plants to a shaded area of the garden, and group them together. This provides more humidity around the plants, and reduces their water requirements.

Water is essential
wtrbttle.jpg Adequate soil moisture is essential for your vegetable garden to maintain good growth during heat waves. Mulching garden beds is very helpful. A method that we have found very helpful to water mulched beds is to use plastic soft drink and juice bottles to funnel water directly to the root area of susceptible plants. This is a quick and very efficient way to hand water during water restrictions, heat waves or windy weather. Limp tomato seedlings will freshen up in about 10 minutes after watering by this method.
Simply cut off the base of each container, remove the lids and bury the necks of the containers about 8 cm deep near outer edge of the foliage of plants. Large shrubs may require several containers. Pour water into the container until it begins to drain slowly – an indication that you have dampened the soil in the root area.
Seedlings and pot plants are usually the first to suffer during heat waves, and you can find advice on how to revive stressed pot plants here: Pot plant stress

Water for wildlife
Birdbath Don’t forget to provide water for birds and bees that visit your garden. A bird bath, or containers of clean water positioned where cats and dogs can’t reach them will provide relief for the insect-eating birds and the bees that pollinate your crops. Chlorinated pool water is toxic to these helpful creatures. A container of water under shaded foliage will be appreciated by your resident frogs too.

Yellow leaves – potted citrus

irondeficiency

A reader wanted to know what what is causing yellowing of new leaves in her potted, dwarf lemon tree. From the photos she e-mailed, it does look like this tree has an iron deficiency, as yellowing is showing in the young leaves. This can be caused by a number of conditions:


a) potting mix (or soil) that is too alkaline from excess bio-char or calcium in the mix or fertiliser containing a lot of poultry manure
b) cold and wet soil or growing mix
c) if there is a build up of fertiliser salts from synthetic fertilisers, or
d) where there is an excess of potassium from synthetic fertilisers or over-use of seaweed liquid fertiliser.

The first thing to do is check that your pot has ample drainage. Large pots should not sit directly on a hard surface. While smaller pots usually have ample drainage holes around the sides at the base of the pots, large pots often have only one large hole in the base and this can easily become blocked resulting in poor aeration and/or a concentration of fertiliser salts if synthetic fertilisers have been used. Large pots should have pieces of tile placed under the pot to allow a small space between the base of the pot and the verandah or paving. If you notice crusting around the top of the soil line (fertiliser salts), flush the plant with clean water, once drainage has been improved.

The next step is to check the pH of the mix with a test kit. A suitable pH is important to all parts of your garden as the pH in soil or mix controls the availability of nutrients. Test kits are very economical to use and readily available from larger nurseries. If you find that the pH is above 7.2, you could repot the tree using an organic-registered potting mix as organic matter is an important source of iron. However, to do so may result in the loss of this crop of fruit.
The addition of flowers of sulphur (elemental sulphur) is the usual way to reduce pH in soils, but it is easy to overdo this in potted plants. You can apply iron chelates (the form of iron in organic compost) to the mix in the pot at the recommended rate. Citrus trees do not absorb iron chelates well through foliar spraying. Or, you can fertilise the tree with a weak solution of Multicrop’s Ecofish. This is an organic-registered liquid fertiliser that contains soluble iron and has a low pH, qhich will help to reduce the pH in the pot. Ecofish contains iron, manganese, sulphur and zinc (trace elements needed by citrus). Manganese deficiency is also caused by high pH or poorly-drained soil.

Passionfruit – hand pollination

To ensure that your passionfruit vine produces lots of delicious, juicy fruit, you may have to hand-pollinate the flowers. Passionfruit vines rely on bees for pollination because their flowers have a large gap between the 5 oval, pollen-bearing male parts (anthers) and the 3 V shaped, female parts (stigmas). There are generally less bees around recently, and they don’t like to venture out in wet or windy weather.
The oval anthers release their pollen early in the morning, but the best time to pollinate is mid morning when the stigmas at the top of each flower bend downwards and secrete a sticky fluid that helps the pollen to adhere to them. The photo below shows the ideal position of the stigmas for pollination.

Only when the female parts of each flower receive passionfruit pollen can the flower form a fruit.
If there aren’t many bees around your passionfruit vine, or if you have a young vine with few flowers, you can pollinate the flowers by hand. The best way to do it is with a soft watercolour paintbrush, and this short video demonstrates the practice beautifully: Hand-pollination of passionfruit
Another way to hand-pollinate is to remove an anther and brush it onto the stigmas. However, each flower needs at least a hundred ovules to develop into seeds for healthy fruit. Otherwise, the fruit will be hollow, or lightweight and not juicy, so the paintbrush ensures a good dusting of pollen where it is needed. Dust the pollen gently over the underside of all 3 stigmas of a different flower on the vine, then repeat with the next flower.**
Passionfruit take 2 – 3 months to develop and ripen – the very popular ‘Nellie Kelly’ slightly longer. Passionfruit, like good wine and cheese, taste best when they are mature. Fruit should have a deep colour and feel heavy. They are juiciest when they are slightly wrinkled.
** Some hybrids and cultivars need a second variety for good cropping. Check with your nursery before purchasing a vine.

Rust diseases

There are hundreds of types of fungi that cause ‘rust’ on plants but each type has a limited number of host plants so that your whole garden is not likely to be overrun by rust.
Rust can occur in various seasons but it does need moisture to grow. It typically causes yellow or brown markings on upper surface of leaves, and small yellow or brown powdery growths on the underside of leaves. The powdery substance consists of fungal spores that can be blown about by wind, infecting other plants that are susceptible to that type of rust fungus.
Below, on the left, are pictures of rust on the underside if a frangipani leaf and typical signs of rust on grasses. Some leaf markings can be confused with fungal diseases. On the right are pictures of hail damage on a cycad and spores on the underside of a fern frond – which is how ferns reproduce.







Treatment
Basically, rust diseases are a sign of malnutrition that produces an unsuitable pH on the leaf surface. Plants, like humans and animals, are more prone to diseases when they have a poor diet, and rust diseases can be avoided by keeping plants growing vigorously – but this is not always possible in extreme weather conditions. Sulphur or copper are the usual treatments for rust. Both of these are nutritional elements that can be supplied by various fertilisers, including seaweed extracts. Seaweed also contains plenty of potassium that strengthens cell walls, sulphur, and trace elements (including copper) that boost plants’ immune systems.
For mild cases of rust, remove damaged parts of the affected plant and burn these, or dispose of them in a sealed plastic bag. Don’t ever compost them, as the spores may not be killed. Then give the plant a foliar feed of seaweed extract tea and water some into the ground over the root area. Improve your fertilising program using a complete organic fertiliser.
For deciduous plants, rake up and dispose of dropped leaves to avoid reinfecting the plant. Apply the seaweed tea at bud swell.
For more severe cases, after removing damaged foliage, plants can be dusted with elemental sulphur (flowers of sulphur. However, as the spores are under leaves and the dust can be difficult to apply, affected plants can be sprayed with wettable sulphur in cool weather only, as sulphur will damage plants when temperatures are over 24 degrees Celcius. Be aware too, that sulphur will also kill pest predators. If these are present on affected plants, apply chamomile tea (one tea bag to 500 ml water) instead.