Passionfruit – hand pollination

To ensure that your passionfruit vine produces lots of delicious, juicy fruit, you may have to hand-pollinate the flowers. Passionfruit vines rely on bees for pollination because their flowers have a large gap between the 5 oval, pollen-bearing male parts (anthers) and the 3 V shaped, female parts (stigmas). There are generally less bees around recently, and they don’t like to venture out in wet or windy weather.
The oval anthers release their pollen early in the morning, but the best time to pollinate is mid morning when the stigmas at the top of each flower bend downwards and secrete a sticky fluid that helps the pollen to adhere to them. The photo below shows the ideal position of the stigmas for pollination.

Only when the female parts of each flower receive passionfruit pollen can the flower form a fruit.
If there aren’t many bees around your passionfruit vine, or if you have a young vine with few flowers, you can pollinate the flowers by hand. The best way to do it is with a soft watercolour paintbrush, and this short video demonstrates the practice beautifully: Hand-pollination of passionfruit
Another way to hand-pollinate is to remove an anther and brush it onto the stigmas. However, each flower needs at least a hundred ovules to develop into seeds for healthy fruit. Otherwise, the fruit will be hollow, or lightweight and not juicy, so the paintbrush ensures a good dusting of pollen where it is needed. Dust the pollen gently over the underside of all 3 stigmas of a different flower on the vine, then repeat with the next flower.**
Passionfruit take 2 – 3 months to develop and ripen – the very popular ‘Nellie Kelly’ slightly longer. Passionfruit, like good wine and cheese, taste best when they are mature. Fruit should have a deep colour and feel heavy. They are juiciest when they are slightly wrinkled.
** Some hybrids and cultivars need a second variety for good cropping. Check with your nursery before purchasing a vine.

Squash family not forming fruit?

The squash or Cucurbit family that includes chokoes, cucumbers, grammas, gourds, pumpkins, rockmelons, squash, watermelons, and zucchinis, produce both male and female flowers on the same plant, and rely on insects, such as bees, to pollinate the female flowers and produce fruit. (Although we eat many of this family as vegetables, in gardening terms, their produce is fruit.)
If bee activity is low, flowers of this family remain unpollinated, and fruit is unable to form. When this happens you may have to hand pollinate your plants to reap the benefits of your hard work. This is quite a simple procedure.
First identify the the female flowers on your vine or bush. At the base of each female flower you will find a miniature version of the mature fruit of that particular species. For example, cucumber vines produce what looks like a tiny gherkin at the base of each female flower while watermelon produce a watermelon miniature, often complete with stripes. The bases of male flowers, on the other hand, join directly onto a vine stem. See examples below.

Cucumber flowers – Male on the Left, female on the right.

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Zucchini flowers – Male on the left, female on the right.

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handpollin To hand pollinate, take a clean, dry, soft-bristled paint brush and ‘tickle’ the centre of a male flower to collect pollen on the tips of the bristles, then gently transfer the pollen to the stigma at the top of the style in the centre of female flowers, making sure that it is well-covered with pollen. (Image shows hand pollination of female cucumber flower.)
Or, you can remove a male flower from the vine, and carefully peel back the petals so that the pollen bearing part in completely exposed. Then dab the centre of the male flower into the centre of a female flower. Repeat this process, replacing the male flower as pollen is removed. Then stand back, and allow nature to take its course.
If you can only find male flowers on your cucurbit vine, the problem takes a little longer to overcome. Pinch off the end of each long runner. This will stimulate the plant to produce side shoots called laterals. Some members of this family tend to produce female flowers on laterals. Once female flowers form, proceed with hand pollination if there are not many bees around.