Taking cuttings

Full Moon phase is a good time to take cuttings, and cuttings can be taken from deciduous plants from hardwood stems, while pruning. Always trim to a horizontal cut at the bottom of the stem to be used for cuttings, and make a slanted cut at the top, otherwise it is easy to plant deciduous cuttings upside down. The chosen section should contain 5 or more nodes (joints in the stem) to allow for trimming.
Fill pots with a sandy potting mix, and trim the base of the cuttings (with a horizontal cut) to just below a node. Position the cuttings around the inside edge of each pot spaced far enough apart to allow roots to spread. Try to have two nodes below the level of the potting mix. Water gently to settle the mix around the cuttings. Keep potting mix just damp, and keep cuttings in a warm, well-lit area out of direct sunlight and wind until the cuttings show signs of growth. Carefully move them into separate pots and feed with weak fertiliser tea, until ready for planting out.

Winter pruning

A Full Moon phase during winter is a good time to prune most deciduous plants. From 19th of this month is a good time to prune dormant trees and vines that tend to bleed (weep sap) if pruned in late winter. These include grapes, kiwi fruit, mulberry, birch, conifers, frangipani, maple and poplar. Pecans, which bleed readily and require minimal pruning, are best pruned during Last Quarter phase (from June 26th) when sap flow is lowest. Almonds should also be pruned early in winter because they flower earlier than other Prunus species. Other deciduous fruit trees can be pruned in winter with the exception of apricots and cherries. These trees are prone to bacterial canker if pruned when sap flow is low and cuts are slow to heal. Young apricot and cherry trees can be pruned in spring during First Quarter phase, and mature trees pruned after harvest during a Full Moon phase. Deciduous fruit trees grown for spring flowers rather than fruit are pruned during a First Quarter phase, after flowering.
It is a good idea to keep a container of methylated spirits with you when pruning and regularly wipe the blades of your pruning tools to avoid the risk of spreading and bacteria or fungal spores from one plant to another.

Pruning roses
In most areas, bush roses can be pruned during a Full Moon phase in winter, after they become dormant. If you have removed dead wood, suckers and crossed branches during the growing season, little winter pruning will be required. Where frosts are common, or rose canker (dieback) has been a problem, it is better to prune bush roses as late as possible – at the first sign of new growth when sap flow is higher. Then prune, with slanting cuts, during First Quarter phase to encourage strong growth. This will help reduce dieback because the fungus that causes rose canker lives on rose thorns. Roses are more susceptible to infection by this fungus when sap flow is slow and pruning cuts heal slowly. Careful pruning is the only way to avoid dieback, as there is no treatment for the fungus.
Climbing roses that are floribunda or hybrid tea sports can be pruned at the same time as bush roses, but climbers that only flower in spring are pruned before a Full Moon, after flowering.

Planting roses

Roses are available for planting now. If possible, avoid purchasing bare-rooted roses before the end of June, as roses that have been lifted before they are fully dormant do not usually grow well. If you live in an area where frosts occur, it is better to plant them at the end of winter. Planting of potted roses can be delayed until spring where frosts are severe. Also avoid planting roses during wet weather, when soil will become compacted.
Roses need a well-drained soil, and following the guidelines for planting trees and shrubs apply to roses. See “Planting trees, shrubs and vines”, under Ornamentals.
If new roses have not been pruned before purchase, leave any pruning required until the end of winter, at the first signs of new growth, or until frosts have passed. If new roses are pruned early and frost damages the plants, you will have very little to cut back to. Climbing roses are pruned after flowering in spring. If pruning at the end of winter, prune new roses during First Quarter phase when sap flow is higher and growth response will be faster. If frost is not a problem, new roses can be pruned during Full Moon phase during winter.
If you are replacing a sick rose, remove soil from the planting area beyond the reach of the sick rose’s roots, and replace it with soil that has not grown roses before.