Snake beans are a good value crop for the vege patch where summers are hot, and French beans may struggle or be attacked by birds. They are prolific croppers over a long period and 4 plants are probably sufficient to supply a family of 4. Ours were still cropping at the beginning of June this year. A popular ingredient in Asian dishes, they can be substituted for French beans in many recipes, and blanched, young beans can be added to salads.
Snake beans can grow up to half a metre or longer but tend to become a little tough if allowed to grow to this length (i.e. the beans at the bottom of the photo). They are best eaten when 30 cm or so in length while seeds are small, and they are young and tender. Pods grow fast and should be picked every day, or every second day at least, to ensure that they are harvested at their best, and to keep the vines forming new pods.
Snake beans take up very little space in the garden as they are grown on a trellis in soil that has plenty of compost and some organic complete fertiliser added, which should keep the soil pH at an ideal level (6.5–7). In late spring, when soil temperature is at least 15 degrees Celsius, sow seeds in damp soil 1 cm deep and 30 cm apart. Water to settle soil after sowing. Do not water the soil again until seed leaves appear, then water regularly to ensure healthy growth. In tropical areas where summer rainfall is heavy, sow seeds in hills to improve drainage. Seeds germinate quickly, and vines can produce pods in 60 days in very hot weather. Greenpatch Organic Seeds has two varieties of snake bean; one with black seeds that produces pods up to 45 cm and one with brown seeds than produces thin pods to 60 cm.
Allow a couple of pods to mature until they have yellowed and lost their ‘puffiness’ (see photo). Then continue the drying process indoors. De-pod seeds when pods are crisp.
Just a reminder that April is a good time for planting spring-flowering bulbs in most areas. Gardeners in warmer climates can put bulbs into the vegetable crisper of the fridge for a month’s chilling before planting in May.
Add plenty of compost and some complete organic complete fertiliser to the planting area. Nutrients will be absorbed by the plants during the growing season and withdrawn into the bulbs as the foliage dies back to ensure good flowering the following season, so remember not to remove foliage before it becomes brown. Bulbs are normally planted at a depth twice the width of the bulb. In warm climates, plant suitable bulbs up to twice as deep as indicated on the packet. After planting, mulch the area in early morning when the soil is cooler and keep the planted area just damp until growth appears, then water regularly. For moon planters, Full Moon phase is the best time to plant bulbs. This year (2014) the Full Moon occurs on 15th of April and May.
March and April are good months for planting garlic in temperate to warmer parts of Australia. This year we are going back to growing the ‘Italian White‘ variety as our winters are becoming too mild for the hard-necked varieties. ‘Italian White‘ is a soft-necked garlic more suited to warmer areas. Cloves are slightly smaller than the purple hard-necked garlic but it has a lovely flavour and keeps longer than the hard-neck varieties.
We will sow ours in the middle of April (during Full Moon phase), after separating the knobs into individual cloves. The larger cloves from each knob will be planted, flat end down, just below the surface into soil rich in compost with a pH close to neutral. We usually plant our cloves 15 cm apart in rows 30 cm apart so that the canopy formed by the leaves helps to keep the mulched soil cooler. Garlic needs regular, deep watering (not a daily sprinkle) and hates competing with weeds. Green Harvest has a range of garlic for planting, and their garlic page will help you to decide which variety is best suited to your local climate and needs.
If you want to grow a small quantity of garlic from knobs purchased from your greengrocer, make sure it is Australian garlic. Imported garlic is treated with methyl bromide, a nasty gas that has been banned in Europe and may prevent cloves from growing.
Garlic takes 6 to 8 months to develop a bulb depending on the variety and climate.
True scallions (Allium fistulosum) that originated in the Far East do not form a bulb. Also known in Australia as spring onions or green onions, these onions are a versatile herb that are used as raw or cooked vegetables In some areas they are sold as shallots, however, true shallots (Allium aggregatum) form a light brown bulb. Scallions are harvested as required as they cannot be stored for long periods. Their pencil-thick stems and hollow green leaves provide a mild flavour used raw in salads, or cooked in many Asian dishes. Chinese herbalists value them for various medicinal properties.
Scallions are easy to grow in all climate zones in Australia, and can be ready to harvest in 8 – 10 weeks. Young seedlings respond well in a compost-rich soil and an application of weak, fermented manure tea watered in several days after transplanting.
Seed of green onions does not keep for long and seed collected for sowing next season will produce a vigorous crop as this seed will have come from plants that have adapted to your local soil and climate conditions. Leave several of your green onion plants to produce seed from their globular flower heads (umbrels).
To save seeds from your spring onions, see Spring onions – saving seed
It is wise to test the pH of compost (including homemade compost) before adding it to your topsoil because the pH of topsoil determines which nutrients are available to plants. Well-made aerobic compost has a pH of around 6.0 to 6.5. Unfortunately, I didn’t follow my own advice recently when, temporarily short of homemade compost, we purchased from our local Bunnings store some bags of Richgro ‘All Purpose Organic Compost’ registered as an allowed input by BFA.
I noticed that the transplanted seedlings where I had applied the compost were not making any growth although the rest of the vege patch was doing well. And, in the area where I had mixed extra compost through each planting hole, the seedlings had turned yellow – a clear sign that the soil pH was too high for the plants to absorb phosphorus for root growth, or iron. Iron (along with nitrogen and magnesium) is essential for chlorophyll (green colouring) formation in leaves that allows plants to produce carbohydrates for growth. Iron deficiency (iron chlorosis) starts in the tips of plants and the leaves of the whole plant turn yellow between the veins or, in extreme cases, white. In contrast, nitrogen chlorosis starts in the older leaves because, when nitrogen is in short supply, plants transfer the available nitrogen to the growing tips, and magnesium deficiency starts in the margins of older leaves.
I tested the topsoil of the affected areas and, finding it above 7.5, I then tested the Richgro compost and the reading was between 8.0 and 8.5. As the pH scale is expressed as negative logarithms, a reading of 8.0 means that the soil is ten times more alkaline than a neutral reading of 7.0. This week I received a question from a blog reader who is having difficulty reducing his soil pH. He had also used the same brand of compost, bought from Bunnings in WA.
Richgro’s response that their “internal records” of the batches in question show a pH of 7.1 and 7.2 and that the test kit I used “do not work well with high organic fraction soils or composts” blah, blah, is not consistent with the physical symptoms of the seedlings. I suspect the problem may have been caused by the type of timber used to produce biochar added to the product. Wood ash contains a very reactive form of calcium and, as the ‘Gardening with Biochar’website states, “Raising soil pH is biochar’s most important contribution to influencing soil quality“.
* I must add that Bunnings were quite happy to accept return of the unopened bags of compost after I explained the problem.
To test pH
Add equal quantities of topsoil from the bed you are preparing and the compost you intend to use to a clean bucket. Mix thoroughly, then mix again. Test a sample of the mixture according to the instructions on your soil test kit. Ideally, for healthy growth of most plants, the pH reading should be between 6 and 7.2.
If soil pH is higher than this, please see:‘Changing soil pH’
Also see: ‘What’s soil pH?’
Passionfruit vines rely on bees to pollinate their flowers because they have a large gap between the pollen-bearing male parts of the flower and the female part. Only when the female part of each flower receives passionfruit pollen can the flower form a fruit. If you don’t have a lot of bees around your passionfruit vine, or if you have a young vine with few flowers, you can pollinate the flowers by hand.
All you need is a small, soft watercolour paintbrush for the job, and this short video by “woodyfriendron” demonstrates the practice beautifully:
Karen has had disappointing results from her Queensland Blue pumpkin vine which produced pumpkins with very little flesh and she wants to know how to avoid problems in future.
Karen, if the seeds are soft and immature, you may have picked the pumpkins before the ‘fruit’ has fully developed, and pumpkins are fruits although we call them vegetables. However, if the seeds are mature, a common cause of this problem is hunger, and this can occur in several different ways even though you may have thought that the plant was well fertilised.
If soil is not damp, nutrients can’t be absorbed by the roots. If soil pH is too acidic or alkaline plants will go hungry because the soil pH controls which nutrients are available to plants, and pumpkins need a soil pH of 5.5-7 for good growth. Pumpkins vines can produce an enormous amount of foliage – and it is a huge task for the roots at the base of the vine to provide moisture and nutrients through the whole plant. When pumpkin vines are allowed to wander over soft earth, they will usually put down extra roots along the vines to assist with water and nutrient absorption.
Pumpkin flowers are pollinated by bees and occasionally a flower or flowers can be pollinated by pollen from a cattle pumpkin, which usually results in fruits that are tough and pretty tasteless. (If your neighbours are growing cattle pumpkins, you may have to hand-pollinate pumpkin flowers).
I’d advise you not to save any seeds from pumpkins that have little flesh or tough flesh as any vines grown from these seeds will probably produce poor quality crops. Only use seed from your best home produce or purchase seeds from a reputable supplier.
Pumpkins thrive on compost, so make compost through the winter ready for next season’s vines. Turning the heap a couple of times a week will keep you warm, keep the heap aerated, and speed up the composting process. If you live in a cool climate, put some black plastic over the top of the heap to help absorb heat. Use the compost to get your pumpkin vine off to a flying start in a different spot in your garden when soil warms in spring.
A reader has asked if potatoes can be grown in the plastic tubs that are sold by Bunnings, Big W, etc., and I will answer it here as the links may be helpful to other readers.
Yes, Rebecca, they would be suitable if you add plenty of drainage holes and put several centimetres of gravel in the base of the tubs so that the potting mix does not block the drainage holes.
Opaque tubs provide similar conditions to small or medium drums (in that the young plants will be more shaded) and you should use those instructions for the tubs in this post. Basically the seed potatoes need at least 15-20 cm of potting mix underneath them and 15 cm of mix above them. Seed potatoes should be sown/planted 30 cm apart and, if they are the tubs I’m thinking of, you would probably only get one plant per tub as there is not really enough room for tubers of 2 plants to form.
The how and why of ‘hilling-up’ potato plants can be found in this post: Growing potatoes.
English spinach is an annual that loves cold weather. It is a fast growing, small plant that forms a rosette of green leaves and stems with a flavour more delicate than that of silverbeet.
It is a versatile vegetable that can be steamed or used in pies, quiches and soups, and is rich in folate, vitamins A, B6, C and E, as well as magnesium, iron and fibre.
In well-drained soil containing plenty of compost and a scattering of organic complete fertiliser, spinach plants are ready to harvest in 8 weeks. Sow seeds in pairs, 1 cm deep and 25 cm apart, directly where they are to grow, and seedlings should appear in 7 days. About a dozen plants are enough for the average family. Keep seedlings well-watered and give them a drink of half strength manure tea or organic liquid fertiliser about a fortnight apart until plants are well established.
When seedlings are about 5 cm tall, remove the weakest seedling of each pair, and use the well-washed thinnings in salads or soups. Where winters are long, progressive sowings can be made each month through winter. Don’t worry about sowing too many plants as English spinach freezes well. Blanch the washed leaves, pack them into ice cube trays with a little water, and freeze. Then transfer frozen cubes into a ziplock plastic bag for storage in the freezer.
This spinach is ‘Galilee’, a variant developed in the Middle East that is a lighter green and more tolerant of warmer winter temperatures – seeds available from Green Harvest.
If you tend to accumulate wood ash from log fires over the colder months, you might be tempted to use it instead of lime to raise soil pH, as it contains between 45–50% calcium carbonate. It will certainly do that – but it should only be used on soils with a pH lower than 5.5 because the calcium in wood ash is in a highly soluble form that can change pH very quickly, and it is very easy to over-do the application. Ash from hardwoods contain one third more nutrients than ash from softwoods (e.g. pine).
Apply wood ash only to beds that are not going to be used for a while, using one handful per square metre. Test soil pH after 2 weeks to see if soil is in a more suitable pH range for plant growth. Wood ash should never be used near plants that prefer acid soils.
A safer way to use wood ash is to keep it in a covered container near your compost heap and dust it, instead of garden lime, between layers of other materials that you add to the compost heap. This will help to keep the compost heap sweet-smelling and ensure good microorganism activity. Mature compost holds nutrients in balance and compost containing wood ash can safely be applied to garden beds.
Wood ash can also be dusted over lawns that have become ‘sour’, especially where moss is growing. While the calcium improves the soil pH, the 2–8% potassium (potash) in wood ash will improve the lawn’s tolerance to heat and cold as well as improving disease resistant. However, if applying wood ash to lawns, avoid using seaweed fertiliser for the current season as seaweed also contains a considerable amount of potassium. Too much potassium can cause a magnesium deficiency.